Roulette is a game of chance that takes place on a gambling table on which there is a disc divided into 37 boxes/sectors numbered from 0 to 36 (00 to 36 in the case of American roulette), colored red and black, the box with the number 0 is green, and a betting mat.

Sometimes red wins, sometimes black wins, but Blanc always wins.

François Blanc (1806-1877), direttore del casinò di Monte Carlo

## How to play

The game consists of guessing which numbered sector the ball will stop on. There are different types of winning possibilities, and these are indicated on the betting mat: even/odd, red/black, exact number, pairs/squares of numbers, first third, second third, third third third, etc. to which corresponds individually a prize proportional to the risk of the bet.

What is the probability of winning at roulette by betting on a specific number? 1 in 37 (1 in 38 for American roulette). And how much do you win?

We denote by PO the “stake played,” by PV the “probability of winning,” and by FA the “factor that multiplies the stake.” But what stakes are favorable to the player? To understand this, we need only calculate the product between the probability of winning (PV) and the factor (FA) that multiplies the stake.

PV × FA

**Case 1**: The player bets on a number, if he guesses correctly, he receives 36 times the PO, therefore:

- PV= 1/37 FA=36 PV × FA= 1/37×36= 36/37 <1

So the game** is favorable to the casino.**

**Case 2:** Player bets on 4 numbers, receives 8 times the OP, therefore:

- PV= 4/37 FA=8 PV × FA= 4/37×8= 32/37 <1

Again, the game **is favorable to the casino.**

**Case 3**: Player bets on one color (18 numbers are red, 18 numbers are black and 0 is green), receives 2 times the EO.

- PV= 18/37 FA=2 PV × FA= 18/37×2= 36/37 <1

Again, the game **is favorable to the casino.**

The game is therefore always more or less favorable to the casino. The game would be fair if the product between the probability of winning (PV) and the factor (FA) multiplying the stakes were equal to 1; the further this number is from 1, the less fair the game is. The more it is less than 1, the more the game is in favor of the casino.

Gaming can trigger mechanisms that could lead the visitor to enjoy games of chance such as roulette, especially if there are winnings. Gambling is also widespread among younger people and it is necessary to warn them of the dangers.

The game is therefore always more or less favorable to the casino. The game would be fair if the product between the probability of winning (PV) and the factor (FA) multiplying the stakes were equal to 1; the further this number is from 1, the less fair the game is. The more it is less than 1, the more the game is in favor of the casino.

In addition to the mathematical aspects, which help to understand how playing and betting always leads to a loss (very useful in this regard is the use of simulation, which shows what happens after a certain number of bets), it is important to emphasize the danger of gambling.

## What is gambling?

People bet, usually money or goods, on the outcome of a future event. The bet, once placed, cannot be withdrawn. The outcome of the bet is governed by chance. The skill of the player does not count.

In **Italy**, the oldest lottery dates back to the 16th century and still bears the same name: Lotto. In Genoa, for the first time in Italy, the game of Lotto was legalized in 1576, following a long unrecognized tradition of betting on many events (outcomes of Doges’ elections, marriages, sex of the unborn).

In Italy Betting on horse racing became a popular game of chance with the birth of Totip in 1948.

In **Britain** in the 12th and 13th centuries, betting on horse racing, now among the most popular forms of gambling, was called “the sport of kings.” But in 1661, the first law banning gambling was enacted, with the aim of preventing less well-off people from getting into debt.

In **France** the philosopher Blaise Pascal in the 16th century was the inventor of roulette.

In **California** in 1885 ‘American Charles Fay built the first SlotMachines.

(Source: Arnold P The Enrucionedio of Gomblino Chartwell Books 1977).

Roger Caillois (1913 – 1978) French writer, sociologist, anthropologist and literary critic wrote the best-known Classification of GAME (1962) in which the following definition appears: “ALEA games whose outcome can be determined solely by chance, as in the case of a coin toss, in betting, roulette, lottery… In these kinds of games: player skill is often irrelevant, chance is dominant, risk is always present.”

## How to build

**EXHIBIT MATERIAL DIN VERSION**

- n.1 pallet 120×180 with hole for roller (80 cm)
- n.1 pallet 120×160 with hole for rolling cylinder
- n. 2 cardboard table legs, 48×120 cm // The legs are created by overlapping and gluing rectangular panels of the appropriate size on top of each other up to the height of 48 cm (see: Assembly sheet)
- 46 mm cardboard panel with half-circle cut at 130 degrees per 100 cm

length - Cardboard panel printed in green with casino table (100×90 cm)
- Cardboard panel with game instructions for interactive simulation (120×20 cm)
- Television or video projector with simulation projection screen
- cylinder with roulette (80 cm in diameter)
- roulette game chips

**DOWNLOAD PRINT-READY .PDF FILES:**

- ROULETTE PANEL 100×90 cm (FRA) // Prepared for roulette cylinder about 80 cm in diameter
- ROULETTE PANEL 100×90 cm (ITA) // Prepared for roulette cylinder about 80 cm in diameter
- ROULETTE PANEL 100×90 cm (FRA)
- ROULETTE PANEL 100×90 cm (ITA)
- CARDBOARD PANEL (ITA) 120×20 cm // for simulation explication
- CARDBOARD PANEL (FRA) 120×20 cm // for simulation explication